File:Abraxas From Wikimedia Deutsch: Abraxas pantaria, Ribes de Freser, Spanien. English: Category:Abraxas pantaria. (B66) BF Light Magpie Abraxas pantaria. (Linnaeus, ). It is doubtful whether this European species has ever been recorded in the British Isles. There is. Abstract: Abraxas pantaria (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), the spotted ash looper (Light Magpie), is recognized as a new pest of common ash, Fraxinus.

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Abraxas pantariaknown commonly as the light magpie or spotted ash looper is a species of moth belonging to the family Geometridae.

It was described by Linnaeus in Adults are white to creamy bone color. The head, thorax and abdomen have light brown hairs and the thorax and each abdominal segment has dark brown spots.

Abraxas pantaria – WikiVisually

The wings are white, although the base of the wings is darker, almost the same color of thorax. The forewings have light brown spots toward the apical margin very close to the middle, forming an irregular band. The hindwings have smaller spots. The larvae feed on the leaves of Fraxinus excelsior and are considered a pest.

The newly hatched caterpillars mostly feed on the lower epidermis and parenchyma tissue, leaving a network of veins. As the caterpillars grow, the size of these grooves increases. Infested leaves usually dry and turn brownish in time. The damage caused can be significant and some trees may be completely defoliated. There are five instars. Taxonomy biology — Taxonomy is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups.

The exact definition of taxonomy varies from source to source, abracas the core of the remains, the conception, naming. There is some disagreement as abraxxas whether biological nomenclature pantaaria considered a part of taxonomy, the broadest meaning of taxonomy is used here.

In earlier literature, the term had a different meaning, referring to morphological taxonomy, ideals can, it may be said, never be completely realized. They have, however, a value of acting as permanent stimulants.

Some of us please ourselves by thinking we are now groping in a beta taxonomy, turrill thus explicitly excludes from alpha taxonomy various areas of study that he includes within taxonomy as a whole, such as ecology, physiology, genetics, and cytology. He further excludes phylogenetic reconstruction from alpha taxonomy, thus, Ernst Mayr in defined beta taxonomy as the classification of ranks higher than species.

This activity is what the term denotes, it is also referred to as beta taxonomy.

How species should be defined in a group of organisms gives rise to practical and theoretical problems that are referred to as the species problem. The scientific work of deciding how to define species has been called microtaxonomy, by extension, macrotaxonomy is the study of groups at higher taxonomic ranks, from subgenus and above only, than species.

While some descriptions of taxonomic history attempt to date taxonomy to ancient civilizations, earlier works were primarily descriptive, and focused on plants that were useful in agriculture or medicine. There are a number of stages in scientific thinking.

Early taxonomy was based on criteria, the so-called artificial systems. Later came systems based on a complete consideration of the characteristics of taxa, referred to as natural systems, such as those of de Jussieu, de Candolle and Bentham. The publication of Charles Darwins Origin of Species led to new ways of thinking about classification based on evolutionary relationships and this was the concept of phyletic systems, from onwards.

This approach was typified by those of Eichler and Engler, the advent of molecular genetics and statistical methodology allowed the creation of the modern era of phylogenetic systems based on cladistics, rather than morphology alone. Taxonomy has been called the worlds oldest profession, and naming and classifying our surroundings has likely been taking place as long as mankind has been able to communicate.

Animal — Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia. The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the group to the choanoflagellates. Animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives and their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives.

All animals are heterotrophs, they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance, most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion, about million years ago.


Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates, vertebrates have a backbone or spine, and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species.

They include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, the remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone.

These include molluscs, arthropods, annelids, nematodes, flatworms, cnidarians, ctenophores, the study of animals is called zoology. The word animal comes from the Latin animalis, meaning having breath, the biological definition of the word refers to all members of the kingdom Animalia, encompassing creatures as diverse as sponges, jellyfish, insects, and humans.

Aristotle divided the world between animals and plants, and this was followed by Carl Linnaeus, in the first hierarchical classification. In Linnaeuss original scheme, the animals were one of three kingdoms, divided into the classes of Vermes, Insecta, Pisces, Amphibia, Aves, and Mammalia. Since then the last four have all been subsumed into a single phylum, inErnst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into two subkingdoms, Metazoa and Protozoa.

The protozoa were later moved to the kingdom Protista, leaving only the metazoa, thus Metazoa is now considered a synonym of Animalia. Animals have several characteristics that set apart from other living things.

Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, which separates them from bacteria and they are heterotrophic, generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae. They are also distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi by lacking cell walls.

All animals are motile, if only at life stages. In most animals, embryos pass through a stage, which is a characteristic exclusive to animals. With a few exceptions, most notably the sponges and Placozoa and these include muscles, which are able to contract and control locomotion, and nerve tissues, which send and process signals. Arthropod — An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a segmented body, and jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Arthropoda, which includes the insects, arachnids, myriapods, arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin, often mineralised with calcium carbonate.

The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages, the rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting.

Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all guilds in most environments. Arthropods range in size from the microscopic crustacean Stygotantulus up to the Japanese spider crab, arthropods primary internal cavity is a hemocoel, which accommodates their internal organs, and through which their haemolymph — analogue of blood — circulates, they have open circulatory systems.

Like their exteriors, the organs of arthropods are generally built of repeated segments. Their nervous system is ladder-like, with paired ventral nerve cords running through all segments and their heads are formed by fusion of varying numbers of segments, and their brains are formed by fusion of the ganglia of these segments and encircle the esophagus.

The respiratory and excretory systems of arthropods vary, depending as much on their environment as on the subphylum to which they belong, arthropods also have a wide range of chemical and mechanical sensors, mostly based on modifications of the many setae that project through their cuticles.

Aquatic species use internal or external fertilization. Almost all arthropods lay eggs, but scorpions give birth to live young after the eggs have hatched inside the mother, arthropod hatchlings vary from miniature adults to grubs and caterpillars that lack jointed limbs and eventually undergo a total metamorphosis to produce the adult form. The level of care for hatchlings varies from nonexistent to the prolonged care provided by scorpions.

The evolutionary ancestry of arthropods dates back to the Cambrian period, the group is generally regarded as monophyletic, and many analyses support the placement of arthropods with cycloneuralians in a superphylum Ecdysozoa.

Overall however, the relationships of Metazoa are not yet well resolved. Likewise, the relationships between various groups are still actively debated.

Arthropods contribute to the food supply both directly as food, and more importantly indirectly as pollinators of crops. Some species are known to spread disease to humans, livestock. Lepidoptera — The Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes moths and butterflies. Recent abtaxas suggest the order may have more species than earlier thought, and is among the four most speciose orders, along with the Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Coleoptera.

Lepidopteran species are characterized by more than three derived features, some of the most apparent being the scales covering their bodies and wings, the scales are modified, flattened hairs, and give butterflies and moths their extraordinary variety of colors and patterns. Almost all species have some form of wings, except for a few that have reduced wings or are wingless.


Like most other insects, butterflies and moths are holometabolous, meaning they undergo complete metamorphosis, mating and the laying of eggs are carried out by adults, normally near or on host plants for the larvae.

As they grow, these change in appearance, going through a series of stages called instars. Once fully matured, the larva develops into a pupa A few butterflies and many species spin a silk case or cocoon prior to pupating, while others pantraia not.

Abraxas pantaria (Linnaeus, 1767)

A butterfly pupa, called a chrysalis, has a hard skin, once the pupa has completed its metamorphosis, a sexually mature adult emerges.

Accordingly, this is the most recognized and popular of insect orders with many involved in the observation, study, collection, rearing of. A person who collects or studies this order is referred to as a lepidopterist, in many species, the female may produce from to eggs, while in others, the number may approach 30, eggs in one day. The caterpillars hatching from eggs can cause damage to large quantities of crops. The origins of the common names butterfly and moth are varied, the English word butterfly is from Old English buttorfleoge, with many variations in spelling.

Other than that, the origin is unknown, although it could be derived from the yellow color of many species wings suggesting the color of butter. The Lepidoptera are among the most successful groups of insects, among the most northern dwelling species of butterflies and moths is the Arctic Apollo, which is found in the Arctic Circle in northeastern Yakutia, at an altitude of m above sea level.

Geometer moth — The geometer moths are moths belonging to the family Geometridae of the insect order Lepidoptera, the moths and butterflies. A very large family, it has around 35, species of moths described, a well-known member is the peppered moth, Biston betularia, which has been subject of numerous studies in population genetics.

Several other geometer moths are notorious pests, many geometrids have slender abdomens and broad wings which are usually held flat with the hind wings visible. They tend to blend into the background, often with intricate, in some species, females have reduced wings. Most are of size, about 3 cm in wingspan, but a range of sizes occur from 10—50 mm. The caterpillars are accordingly called loopers, spanworms, or inchworms after their characteristic looping gait, the cabbage looper and soybean looper are not inchworms, but caterpillars of a different family.

In many species of moths, the inchworms are about 25 mm long. They tend to be green, grey, or brownish and hide from predators by fading into the background or resembling twigs, many inchworms, when disturbed, stand erect and motionless on their prolegs, increasing the resemblance.

They are gregarious and are generally smooth, some eat lichen, flowers, or pollen, while some, such as the Hawaiian species of the genus Eupithecia, are even carnivorous. Certain destructive inchworms are called cankerworms, the placement of the example species follows a systematic treatment, it may be outdated. Subfamilies are tentatively sorted in a sequence, from the most basal to the most advanced. Traditionally, the Archiearinae were held to be the most ancient of the geometer moth lineages, however, it now seems that the Larentiinae are actually older, as indicated by their numerous plesiomorphies and DNA sequence data.

They are either a basal lineage of the Geometridae — together with the Sterrhinae —. Kristensen, Pantarai der Zoologie. Geometrid Moths of the World, Pantqria Catalogue. He is known by the father of modern taxonomy. He received most of his education at Uppsala University. He lived abroad between andwhere he studied and also published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands and he then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala.

In the s, he was sent on journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants. Abraxws the s and s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, at the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe. The German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote, With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, Swedish author August Strindberg wrote, Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist.